Monday, June 05, 2006

Sound and Light Therapy - Photons

Presented at the Neural Therapy Workshop on Sound and Light Therapy, Seattle, WA, February, 20-22, 2003. Photons and Phonons: Theoretical Concepts of Biophysics and Potential Therapeutic Applications W. John Martin, M.D., Ph.D. Center for Complex Infectious Diseases and the BioPhysics Institute 3328 Stevens Ave., Rosemead, CA 91770 (626) 572-7288 Introduction Life forms comprise lipid membrane-bound, nucleic acid containing, chemically complex and metabolically active, discrete entities that progressively reproduce to yield further copies of essentially the same life form.

The complex chemicals in living organisms are called “organic”, in contrast to “inorganic” chemicals in non-living environments. Life requires the initial transformation of inorganic to organic chemicals. These chemicals are then progressively modified by metabolic processes occurring in the living cells that comprise various living organisms. Metabolic co-operation among different life forms is a common occurrence.

It allows for an extensive overall network of balancing and supportive chemical exchanges that lead to an eventual re-conversion of organic molecules back into simple inorganic chemicals. The science of biochemistry is concerned primarily with the complex interactions between organic molecules that create and sustain life.

Biochemical abnormalities can be equated with specific diseases that potentially are correctable by the addition or subtraction of chemicals with drugs. For many diseases this chemical or pharmaceutical approach is effective and certainly sufficient to maintain reasonable wellbeing. Organic molecules possess other properties that are related to how they interact within the various types of energy fields that have been identified by physicists.

Biophysics primarily deals with these interactions and also with the requirement for energy from the sun in the initial transformation of inorganic to organic molecules. While far less well defined than biochemical methods, the potential of physics to reverse disease processes and to enhance wellbeing hold enormous promise for mankind.

Unfortunately, progress in medical biophysics has been impeded by the muddled thinking, exaggerated claims and patient exploitation practiced by many present and past proponents of this “alternative” approach to medicine.

The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of basic principles of energy physics and to illustrate how some of these principles are currently being used in medicine. The article concludes with a discussion of some of the advances expected in the field of biophysics, especially following the recent discovery of alternate cellular energy (ACE)-pigments.

The Originating Source of Biological Energy The process of capturing energy from sunlight and utilizing the energy to transform simple to complex molecules is known as photosynthesis. A portion of the sun’s energy is converted, (or transduced), to chemical energy that becomes incorporated into, and stored within, organic molecules.

The best studied example of photosynthesis is sunlight induced formation of glucose (a type of carbohydrate) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), with the release of oxygen (O2). This form of photosynthesis only occurs in plants and certain bacteria that contain chlorophyll, a specific light energy absorbing, magnesium containing, organic molecule. Specifically, the sun’s energy is used to activate electrons (defined below) that can be transferred to other molecules involved in carbon fixation Transferred electrons are replaced with electrons obtained from the hydrogen atom of water with the release of oxygen from the water molecule.

Nitrogen (N2) from the atmosphere is incorporated into organic molecules through the interaction of “nitrogen fixing” bacteria, some of which interact with the roots of certain types of plants. It requires an abundant source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plus hydrogen. ATP is a molecule with three phosphate (P) chemical groups, the last of which is bound by a high energy chemical bond.

ATP is mainly synthesized (produced) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by the oxidation of glucose which, as described above, is supplied to living organisms via photosynthesis. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + ADP + P → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP Nitrogen fixation leads mainly to the production of ammonia (NH3).

This reaction is mediated by an iron protein and a molybdenum-iron protein molecular complex termed nitrogenase as follows: N2 + 8H + 16 ATP → 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16 P Nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that make up proteins, and of the nucleic acids that make up DNA and RNA nucleic acids.

Less well understood pathways exist for the assimilation of other minerals including, iron, sulfur, calcium, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum and magnesium, into organic molecules. Types of Energies The sun’s energy is in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Energy can exist in other forms, including electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic, kinetic, gravity, chemical and others. It can also exist as matter, according to the classical equation of Einstein: Energy (E) = Mass (m) x c (speed of light)2.

Energy can be a static force localized to a given area, although constantly extending an influence on its surroundings, or as a moving entity, changing its location as a function of time. The nature of the so called “ether” through which energies communicate is presently unknown. It can be perceived as a pervasive elastic (deformable) fabric interconnecting the entire universe of major galaxies as well as filling the void separating all known particles of mass and all expressions of energies.

Of special importance, the “ether” can apparently provide for restricted directional coupling between separated energy sources and can facilitate highly selective processes of energy transfers and energy transductions (conversions). Electrical Energy The fundamental essence of electrical energy is largely unknown and it is still described by its effects, rather than by its underlying nature. Electric charge can be equated with different types of particles present in the mass component (atoms) of all known chemical compounds.

The simplest atom is that of hydrogen, a major element of the sun. The hydrogen atom comprises a central core (or nucleus) with an electrically positively charged particle, called a proton, and an outer negatively charged energy shell, containing a much smaller particle termed an electron. The proton itself comprises various energy bound sub-atomic entities, termed quarks. The nuclei of all other atoms contain an additional type of particle that is uncharged and is called a neutron. It too is comprised of three quarks.

Static and Moving Charge A static (stationary) electrical charge is expressed as either a positive or a negative electromotive force and measured as volts. A negative charge is essentially an excess of electrons, while a region of positive charge has more protons than electrons. If electrons are able to move between the charged regions they will do so in the direction of negative to positive charge.

This movement of electrons constitutes an electrical current. It can be measured as amps and is directly proportional to the voltage difference between the charges, and inversely proportional to the relative degree of resistance being exerted against the flow of the electrons. By alternating the positioning of the positively and negatively charged regions, it is possible to create an alternating current that will have a frequency of change per second of time, which is expressed as Hertz. The flow of current can also be discontinuous and occur in pulses at regular or irregular intervals Chemical Energy Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing and/or exchanging electrons, bringing their atoms into closer proximity than when they existed as individual atoms. Electrical attraction leads to chemical bonding.

This conversion typically requires considerable energy which may also be needed for the chemical bond to be subsequently disrupted. There are approximately 92 naturally occurring major atoms, ranging from the simplest, which is the hydrogen atom, to uranium. The 92 primary atoms or elements can be distinguished according to the number of protons and neutrons that are present. Minor variations may also occur among the isotopes of certain atoms which differ solely in the number of neutrons. Uncharged atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons.

Loss of one or more electrons will create a positively charged atom. Conversely, a gain of one or more electrons will yield a negatively charged atom. The energy of an electron determines its average orbiting position relative to the nucleus of the atom. As the number of electrons increases, pairs of electrons are progressively positioned further from the nucleus at higher energy levels. Single, or unpaired, electrons can exert magnetic and other effects that are normally cancelled when they function in pairs. Magnetic Energy Magnetic force also has two facets, but unlike electricity, they cannot be separated. Magnetic energy is a property of a moving charge.

It can occur, for example, with an unpaired spinning electron. The electron spinning occurs in three distinct forms i) very rapid directional spinning on its own axis, ii) much slower rotational spin about that axis (precision), and iii) overall orbiting orientation with regards to comparable unpaired electrons in adjoining atoms. Electron pairs have opposing spin and this probably explains how they neutralize each other’s externally radiated effects. Interactions between certain types of atoms with unpaired electrons can lead to selective alignments such that the combined energies of the unpaired electrons lead to an externally discernable magnetic field. Longitudinally moving electrical charges also provide a surrounding magnetic field.

Conversely, a magnetic field will induce a moving force on an electric charge. Magnetic force is expressed in units of attraction and is typically measured as Gauss or Tesla, where 1,000 Gauss is 1 Tesla. Electricity induced magnetic energy can be static or in the form of regular fluctuating pulses induced by using an alternative current flow. Electromagnetic Energy Electromagnetic radiation from the sun is a moving force, comprising entities called photons. These energy packets are released from hydrogen fusion reactions occurring within the sun.

The movement of photons is accompanied by regularly fluctuating positive and negative electrical and magnetic fields which act transversely to the direction of the traveling photon and at right angles to each other. The frequency of synchronized electrical and magnetic fluctuation is directly proportional to the energy of the photon.

The speed of photon travel (speed of light) is essentially constant for all photons, although influenced by the nature of the material through which the photons are passing. The speed of light in space is 186,280 miles per second, and slightly slower in air. Since the speed is constant, the frequency of each fluctuating cycle per second of time (Hertz), is directly related to energy content measured in electron volts, and inversely related to the distance traveled in air during each complete cycle, expressed as the wavelength. Photons with wavelengths from approximately 400 to 700 nanometers (10-9 meters) in air comprise visible white light, which is a composite of the spectrum of colors seen in a rainbow. Higher energy photons include ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Lower energy photons include infrared radiation and radio-waves.

A Figure showing the relationships between energy levels, frequency and wavelengths of the various manifestations of electromagnetic radiation is shown below. Kinetic (Movement) Energy The energy of movement can be found in the regular to and fro motion of an object. This motion can exert pressure on adjacent molecules. Vibrations tend to lose intensity over time, whereas the term oscillation applies to a more continuing repetition of the movement. They can be measured as both displacement distance (intensity) and rapidity of change (frequency per second or Hertz).

Objects tend to have a natural frequency at which they will vibrate if struck. Moreover, both the intensity and rate of vibration of an object and of its component molecules can usually be increased by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, especially at frequencies in the infrared range. Conversely, an object with a higher rate of vibration will tend to emit photons of infrared frequencies to its surroundings. This emitted energy is detectable as heat.

Vibration energy can also be propagated between different locations by the progressive back and forth displacement of adjacent molecules. This compression/expansion of molecules occurs at speeds largely determined by the density of the molecules being vibrated. For air the speed of vibrations within the frequency range of approximately 20 to 5 million Hertz is approximately 335 miles per second (far less than the speed of light). Oscillation energy can also travel within and between molecules and is less constrained by the intervening medium.

The term “phonon” is primarily used to describe the energy packets that mediate the transfer of molecular oscillation energy along the lattice structures that comprise crystals and other tightly organized groups of interacting molecules. Phonon mediated intra- and intermolecular oscillations can also be transmitted via the “ether” and can exist as coupled directional energy exchanges.

Harmonics With every frequency, whether vibrational, or oscillatory, there are accompanying higher frequencies that reflect a subdivision of the primary frequency. These higher frequencies are termed harmonics and can be 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., times the primary frequency, typically with progressively diminishing intensity. Moreover, each periodicity of vibration can be additive, such that a final frequency is a summation contributed to by the primary frequency, harmonic frequencies and various additional combinations of the entire set of frequencies. Harmonics, additive frequencies and summations of energy levels also apply to electromagnetic radiation.

Infra- and Ultrasounds Oscillations and vibrations below and above the range of human hearing (20-approximately 15,000 Hertz) are called infrasound and ultrasound, respectively. At certain levels these frequencies can no longer be transmitted via the movement of air molecules. Gravity waves that can cause an attraction between objects in direct proportion to their mass may be part of an infrasound form of oscillation that is transmissible through the “ether.” Other Components of Mass and of Energy Other presumed particles and energy packets exist that are beyond the scope of this review.

They include positrons (an electron–like particle with a positive charge), neutrinos (a nearly mass-less particle without a charge), tachyons (a hypothetical particle larger than neutrons) and various forms of dark matter, dark energy and anti-matter. It is not difficult to envision the creation of circuits of these various energy forms analogous to the electron flow of electricity. Probably the biggest hurdle to overcome is a precise definition of what constitutes the “ether” that interconnects all of the various energy sources.

Energy Summation and Modulation As with harmonics, pooling occurs with each particular form of energy such that what actually is transmitted is an overall summation (and averaging) of all of the individual components. This is seen for example with a beam of white light which is a composite of traveling photons, with different wavelengths ranging from approximately 400-700 nm. At any point of time, the adjacent photons will typically be at different phases with regards to their fluctuating electromagnetic activity.

The electromagnetic effects on the “ether” will be an averaging of all of positive and negative influences. Opposing positive and negative effects will cancel the lesser of the two, while “coherent” or “in phase” effects will be additive. Similarly, with sound waves, the actual vibrations of air particles results from the combined effects of many interactive pressures and expansions.

Radio-waves passing through the environment are yet a further example of mixtures of energies at different frequencies and intensities. Information carried on a radio-wave can be in the form of either slight alterations (modulations) in frequency or intensity (amplitude) of a main “carrier” signal emitted from the radio station. Additional sources of radiation are being constantly introduced into man’s environment with uncertain biological effects. Energy Reception and Detection In spite of their complexities it is, nevertheless, possible to extract individual energy levels (wavelengths of light, sound or radio-waves) from a composite mixture using physical and biological means. For example, the speed of light is slowed as it passed from air though glass.

This slowing effect is directly related to the wavelength, and thus is more pronounced on red, rather than blue light. By angling the light through a prism, white sunlight can be “refracted” into a spectrum of rainbow colors. Biological discriminations are typically based on a cellular receptor system which can selectively respond to a particular form of energy that is fluctuating at a precisely time rate. In many systems, the amount of absorbed energy corresponds to the difference between two alternative states of the receptor. This property can be assessed by determining which part of a broad spectrum of energy is selectively absorbed by a particular biological system.

With sensitive enough instruments, it is theoretically possible to detect and quantify the specific energy emitted from a receptor as it passes from a higher to a lower energy state. Rather than absorbing energy, certain structures can simply reflect or deflect its direction of travel. This can apply to the whole spectrum of the energy or to only parts of the energy spectrum.

Thus, for example, the color of an object simple reflects the remaining spectrum of wavelengths of white light that are not absorbed by the object. These wavelengths are reflected from an opaque object but pass through a transparent object. Energy Transduction A fundamental concept, first enunciated by Newton, is the strict conservation of energy. Thus energy is not removed from existence, although it can be stored in the form of mass. In a wide variety of ways, energy can be converted (transduced) between different forms.

As an initial event, energy has to be absorbed to become converted into another form. As discussed above, energy absorption can be a highly selective process occurring only when the amount and type of absorbed energy exactly corresponds to the difference in energy levels between two alternative energy states of a receptor. Seemingly the absorbed energy has to continue to function and cannot be placed into an object or situation where it is inactive. In the new situation, however, it can assume another form and this change is referred to as transduction.

Prominent examples of energy transduction include: Absorption of a photon of light to elevate the energy and orbiting position of an electron. As expected, the differential energy levels of several molecules, such as chlorophyll, correspond to specific wavelengths present in visible light.

The higher energies of photons of X-rays and gamma rays can so elevate the energy of an electrons in many molecules that the electrons are emitted from the molecules leaving an excess of positive charge. Because of this property, X-rays and gamma rays are termed ionizing radiations. They can also directly damage the nuclei of atoms. Other examples of energy transduction include the exchange of energy between an infrared photon and molecular vibration; added sound-induced pressure on a molecule and creation of an electric current (piezoelectric effect); orientation of a charged molecule in response to a magnetic field, etc. Biological Examples of Energy Transduction.

Energy transductions play critical roles in effecting and regulating many biological processes. Prominent examples of energy transduction in biological systems include the following: Absorption of photons to elevate the energy levels of electrons in chlorophyll with the subsequent transfer of these electrons to the photosynthesis process. With certain other pigments, the light-photon-absorbing electrons simply return to their baseline state with the re-emission of photons of somewhat lower energy than those originally absorbed.

The re-emitted light is known as fluorescence. The energy difference between the absorbed and emitted photons is made up by either additional vibratory energy of the absorbing pigment or added release of photons in the infrared (heat) range. Light induced fluorescence of chlorophyll in a plant is a sign of cell damage affecting the normal channeling of photon-activated electrons into photosynthesis. Specialized cells in the eye contain a light-photon sensing molecule called rhodopsin which, like chlorophyll, can absorb photons with energy levels corresponding to visible light.

This energy is converted into a chemical reaction within a class of so called G-binding proteins that eventually trigger an electrical reaction that is passed along the cell membrane into the brain. Specialized cells in the ear can respond to vibrations of frequencies in the range of 20 to 15,000 Hertz and transmit the signal to the brain where is perceived as sound. Speech is the induced vibration of air mediated by the muscular constriction of vocal cords during exhalation.

There are various sensors in the skin and other organs that respond to pressure, vibration, infrared radiation (heat) and to changes in proton and electron concentrations (pH). Other striking examples of specialized energy transmitting and/or reception among animals include radar (an abbreviation for Radio Detection And Ranging) in bats, Sonar (an abbreviation for sound navigation and ranging) in whales; electric sensors in the Australian platypus, magnetic field guided navigation in birds, light flashing in fireflies, etc. Normal cells have an electrical energy across their lipid cell membrane. It is due to a relative predominance of negatively charged ions insufficiently counterbalanced by cations (predominantly K+), and an excess of cations (predominantly Na+) outside of the cell. This negative charge can be temporarily abrogated by allowing for transient Na+ input into the cell.

This process can occur in a progressive manner along nerve cells allowing for the transmission of an electrical signal. The brain is awash in multiple oscillatory electrical circuits, grouped according to their frequency range and other associations. The more prominent are beta waves, from 14 to 20 Hz, which are found in our normal waking state of mind. Alpha waves, from 8 to 13 Hz, can become prominent during daydreaming or meditation. Theta waves are from 4 to 7 Hz, and also occur in states of deep meditation. Delta waves, from 0.5 to 3 Hz, are especially seen in deep sleep.

The heart also displays rhythmically oscillating electrical activity, as can many muscle groups. It is reasonable to expect that the body’s energy fields would be interactive and able to exert global effects on many cell types throughout the body. Individual proteins within a cell can also oscillate in response to the passage of electrons that can cause molecular contractions and relaxations depending upon their distance from a proton rich region. Other proteins can be in a state of flux as they carry on such functions as transport, repetitive movements, intermolecular binding and chemical change.

The movement of electrically charged free electrons, atoms and molecules can create magnetic fields that can potentially affect other areas of a cell as well as neighboring cells. Different molecules can respond in unison with coupled oscillations and other forms of energy transfer. Energy bonding of related molecules can yield relatively large functional units. Distinct molecules, including different polymers, can also physically associate, but usually in a more easily reversible manner. The types of associations can include the formation of liquid crystals with separate regions for donating and accepting electrons.

Chemical Versus Physical Properties of Molecules The above considerations allow for interesting distinctions to be made between the chemical and physical properties of organic molecules. Principally, the chemical reactivity of a molecule is viewed as being mainly related to arrangements of outer electrons on accessible atoms. While there is an enormous potential for specificity and for precise discrimination, the activity is essentially confined to individual interacting molecules. Physical interactions, on the other hand, can involve series of linked molecules that function as a whole, rather than individually.

The complex entities can exert and can respond to electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic, oscillatory and other energy forms, that can act at varying distances throughout an organism, and even between organisms. While there may not be the fine discrimination of precise chemical reactions, there can be an overall coordinating influence affecting an entire set of cellular structures. As biophysics grows as a scientific discipline, sensitive instrumentations will become available to pursue the modes of non-chemical energy communications within living organisms. At the present time, energy methods are proving to be particularly useful in medical diagnostics.

Diagnostic Uses of Energy Emitting and/or Recording Devices Structural information on internal organs of the human body is routinely obtained using various imaging techniques, based on differential absorption or reflection of particular forms of energies. Prominent examples include X-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). X-rays are differentially absorbed by tissue components; bone being highest and air filled cavity spaces the lowest.

Ultrasounds are reflected back from regions of transitions of tissue densities and can effectively outline various organs. Ultrasounds can also be used to assess rates of blood flow through major arteries and veins. With MRI, the water molecules in tissues are aligned with a powerful magnetic field. This orientation is periodically modulated by the application of pulsed radio-waves and the rates of return to the magnet induced orientation of different regions of an organ measured. Sensitive methods are being developed to apply diagnostic imaging to histological tissue sections and to individual cells, obtained for example, by fine needle aspirates.

Energy recordings of electrical activity emanating from the brain (EEG) and heart (EKG) are also commonly monitored to assess the functioning of these organs. Similarly, nerve conduction times and induced muscle activity can be electrically recorded. Thermography can be used to highlight areas of abnormally high or low release of infrared photons. The measurements of electrostatic fields surrounding an individual or the conductance of an applied electric impulse between different regions of the body are occasionally used but are of unproven diagnostic.

Accepted Therapeutic Uses of Externally Applied Energy. The detrimental effects on cell viability of high levels of ionizing radiations can be used to retard the growth, and even to eliminate cancers. Externally applied electrical currents are routinely used to overcome a lack of normal cardiac rhythm. The brain is also the target of electrical and magnetic energies in electroshock and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), respectively.

Both with the heart and brain, the external energy is mainly being used to allow for a recovery of the underlying normal electrical rhythm. Ultrasounds are used to induce vibrations and mechanical fragmentations of renal and gall bladder stones (lipotripsy). Radiofrequency induced heat is used in cauterizing instruments to control minor blood leakage in surgery. Light is used to chemically transform elevated levels of lipid soluble, to water soluble, bilirubin in newborn infants with jaundice. It is also being used to activate the toxicity of light sensitive materials introduced into tumor cells (photodynamic therapy).

Biological Effects of Low Level Energy In spite of this potential sensitivity to external energy fields, there is little clear documentation of reproducible, quantifiable and beneficial biological effects of relatively low level electromagnetic, electrical, magnetic or sound energies in human physiology. In pursuing such studies, one may need to separate those who are normal (in whom there may well be no effect) from those with an energy treatable disorder. Limited data from Dr. Becker suggest a role for low level electrical stimulation in the healing of bone fractures. Other data indicate potential pain relief from both electrical e.g. TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) machine and pulsed magnetic energies e.g. Magnetic Molecular Energizing and PAP-IMI machines.

The reduction in tissue swelling with these and other modalities is consistent with an enhancement of lymphatic draining. Seasonal affective disorder is seemingly due to diminished sunshine and can be partially corrected using full spectrum light. Given the intrinsic sensitivity of the brain to environmental and interpersonal influences, it is not surprising that claims are commonly made to the effects of sound, aromas, magnets, vibrations, light, etc., on mood, thinking abilities (cognition), and stress levels.

EEG neurofeedback provides a potential qualitative method to determine whether changes are actually occurring in the brain’s electrical circuitry as a result of such stimuli. Healers can be particularly convincing in their belief systems that not uncommonly include the notion of being a conduit for spiritual energy from God. Most of the claims made by alternative medical practitioners and healers are judged by rational observers to be flawed.

This is because the claims lack a rational scientific foundation and because they are not substantiated by objective, double-blinded studies. The first defect is usually answered by claiming that science is not sufficiently advanced to provide a meaningful explanation. The second defect is generally one of unwillingness to perform the studies, with the issue of cost being paramount. Government regulatory efforts to protect the public (possibly with undue encouragement from the pharmaceutical industry) also act as a deterrent for mainstream medical practitioners to become affiliated with proponents of energy medicine.

The Future of Energy Medicine In spite of these shortcomings, there is an exciting future for energy medicine. Research work is pointing towards the existence of an alternative cellular energy (ACE)-pigments that can capture external energy sources, even more so than chlorophyll. ACE-pigments have been identified in patients infected with atypically structured, non-inflammation inducing (stealth-adapted) viruses. Studies have shown these pigments to be responsive to sound, light and magnetic energies.

Their discovery has given a new impetus to improving the methods of energy delivery and to the establishment of well conducted clinical trials. Potential natural sources for ACE-pigments are being explored and experiments ranging from tissue regeneration, wound healing, metabolic resuscitation of viral infected cells and, energy induced destruction of cancer cells are either underway, or in the planning stage.

A brief review of some of these energy delivery systems to be used for targeting and/or activating ACE pigments is as follows: Sound: ACE-pigments were shown to vibrate at specific frequencies. They could also be vibrated using various forms of traditional music. A feature of many of the recordings shown to be particularly active is the broad range and relative intensity of the many harmonics present in the music.

Even with single instruments, one can observe potential benefits in creating harmonics with a 7 verses a 5 string violin, or a 12 versus a 6 string guitar. The delivery of vibrations outside of the range of hearing may be desirable to avoid over stimulation of the auditory responses. These include ELF (extremely low frequencies) and ultrasounds beyond 15,000 Hertz, but typically still less that those used in ultrasound imaging. Light: The pioneer in this field of therapy was undoubtedly Dr. Royal Raymond Rife.

As early as the 1930’s he was able to electrically excite certain gases using impulses set at varying frequencies (and their harmonics). Using sensitive microscopic techniques he observed fluorescence in different microorganisms. By applying selected frequencies to such organisms, he could identify a mortal oscillatory frequency (MOR) for several types of bacteria. More importantly, he observed beneficial effects in patients exposed to light emissions arriving at defined frequencies.

Newer light sources now exist including LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and powerful LED’s (Light Emitting Diodes). An issue of relatively poor transmission of visible light through the body can be addressed using the principle of rapid firing of better penetrating lower energies photons that can achieve multiple hits on the same target, so as to achieve the energy level of visible light. Magnet: A PAP-IMI device for ultra-short pulsed magnetic impulses is proving useful in pain relief and accelerated healing.

Especially with the development of the MRI, powerful magnets with 5 or more Tesla strength are becoming available for experimental clinical therapeutic use. Conclusions The opportunity clearly exists to evaluate various biophysics modalities in well designed experimental and clinical studies.

Basic tissue and microbial culture methods provide ready sources of life forms to test the importance of energy-based parameters. Solid conclusions from such studies can be applied to multi-cellular organisms, including plants, animals and humans. Improved instrumentation will allow for more objective findings, both at the molecular level and at the level of the whole organism. Critical experiments can be conducted to evaluate specific hypotheses and to refine precise mechanisms of action. It this approach is taken, it is very likely that biophysics will become a powerful adjunct to the practice of medicine and to the well being of mankind.
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